Shirakawa historic sites tour: day 3, Nov. 15, 2018. (白河史跡巡り3日目 古墳群 2018年11月15日)

Today I headed towards eastern part of Shirakawa mainly along the Abukuma River and visited ancient kofuns (tumuli or burial mounds) and demolished temple ruins.
本日は、白河の東部の地域を主に阿武隈川沿いに進み、古墳や廃寺跡を訪ねました。

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Photos above show the largest kofun I visited today called Shimousazuka Kofun built in late 500’s. Large mound area spreading on a field in front was the kofun site which was 71.8m long keyhole shape type. It was considered that local powerful clan at Shirakawa at the time was buried in here. Most of the surrounding areas were now rice fields.
写真は、6世紀後半につくられた下総塚古墳で、本日巡った中で最大のものでした。山の手前の地面に広く盛り土が広がっている部分で、全長71,8mの前方後円墳です。当時のこの地の豪族「白河国造」が埋葬されていると考えられています。なお、まわりはほとんど田んぼでした。

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Very close to this kofun site, ancient demolished temple site was excavated which was called Kariyado temple ruins. At the site shown above there were only some remains of foundations left but many artifacts were already taken out and preserved in museums. The temple existed between 700’s and 900’s.
下総塚古墳のすぐ近くに、借宿廃寺跡があります。現地は、写真のように当時の礎が少し見られる程度ですが、多くの発掘されたものは、白河市歴史民俗資料館などで大切に保管されています。寺は、8世紀から10世紀頃に機能していたようです。

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Earlier in the morning on the way toward east, I visited some more different types of kofuns. One of them was shown above named Yachikubo Kofun estimated to be built in late 600’s. A part of the stone structure was revealed on the surface but the whole shape was round type of 17m diameter.
更に、今朝東に進む途中で、また別の種類の古墳を見ました。1つは、写真の谷地久保古墳で、7世紀後半につくられたものです。一部石の構造が地表に露出していますが、全体は直径17mの円墳とのことです。

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Another kofun site was Nojikubo site located very close to the Yachikubo site. The actual kofun was hiding underground and I could only see the location site in a wood as shown above. The type of this kofun, which was round at the top and square at the bottom, was a rare type across Japan. The time of this kofun was considered to be the late 600’s which was the same as Yachikubo.
もう1つは、野地久保古墳で先の谷地久保古墳のすぐ近くにあります。写真の通り、実際の古墳は地下に隠れていて説明板のみでしたが、全国的にも珍しい上円下方墳とのことです。谷地久保古墳と同じく、7世紀後半のものです。

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The last kofun site I visited today was Zaruuchi Kofun now moved and restored on the ground of Kochinodai Park located close to the original site. It looked as shown above. It was a round kofun of a diameter of 11.5m estimated to be built in 600’s.
本日訪ねた最後の古墳は、写真の笊内古墳4号墳です。ここのすぐ近く(上野出島)で発掘され、その後ここの東風の台公園に移設復元されています。7世紀のもので、直径11,5mの円墳です。

Some other historic sites I stopped at today are shown below.
本日寄った他の場所は、以下の通りです。

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Photo above shows Utatanenomori site where a powerful general Minamoto-no-Yoshiie (1039-1106) was said to have taken a nap here.
写真は、「転寝の森(うたたねのもり)」と呼ばれる場所です。昔、源義家(1039-1106)がここでうたたねをした言い伝えがあります。

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Photo above shows Otaki Spring where the general Minamoto-no-Yoshiie loved during “Zenkunennoeki” battle in Tohoku (1051-1062).
写真は、「小滝の清水」で、同じく源義家が前九年の役(1051-1062)の時にここの清水を愛用したとのことです。

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Photo above shows foot of Mt. Shinchi which had a nickname “Hitowasurezu-no-yama”. This word frequently appeared in Japanese Waka poem in the old days.
写真は、「人忘れずの山」とも呼ばれた新地山のふもとです。「人忘れずの山」は、歌枕にもなりました。

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Finally I stayed overnight at Kitsuneuchi hot spring inn as shown above located in the easternmost part of Shirakawa.
最後に、今晩は白河市の一番東にある写真のきつねうち温泉に泊まります。

The exact route and locations are shown in the map below. The map can be scaled up and down with a click and scroll.
ルートと場所は、下の地図を参照ください。地図は、クリックとスクロールで、拡大・縮小が可能です。
20181115白河史跡巡りday3 (560x420)

Shirakawa historic sites tour: day 2, Nov. 14, 2018. (白河史跡巡り2日目 城下町2018年11月14日)

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Today was the second day and I first stopped at well preserved graveyard of the first lord of Shirakawa domain Niwa Nagashige in Edo Period. Photo above was a small pond called “Shonanko” located at the entrance point for the graveyard.
2日目の最初は、江戸時代の初代白河藩主丹羽長重の墓所を訪ねました。写真は、その墓所への入口にある小南湖と呼ばれる池です。

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Walking up for a while I came to a mausoleum of the lord Niwa Nagashige (1571-1637) as shown above.
しばらく登ると、写真の丹羽長重(1571-1637)の霊廟が現れます。

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In the same graveyard there were tombs for other lords who served for Shirakawa domain. A brief description board on site, as shown above, explained it.
同じ墓所には、白河藩の他の藩主、松平直矩、松平基知のお墓もあります。

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There was also a tomb, as shown above, for 23 Nihonmatsu domain soldiers who died in Boshin Civil War in 1868. Why? Because Niwa lord family later moved to Nihonmatsu domain.
また、戊辰戦争でこの白河で亡くなった23人の二本松藩士のお墓もありました。丹羽家は、白河のあと二本松藩の藩主にもなり、関係が深かったためと思われます。

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Near the graveyard, there was a historic Daitoji Temple shown above in Umamachi area. The Buddhist temple was originally found in early 800’s at a separate place but later the lord Niwa Nagashige moved to the current place.
墓所の近くの馬町には,写真の大統寺があります。800年代の初期に別の場所に建てられたものですが、丹羽長重がここの場所に移しました。

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Then I pedaled the bike heading toward Shirakawa Castle site, which was established between 1331 and 1337 by Yuki Munehiro who was a family member of powerful Shirakawa-Yuki clan at the time. The site was located on top of a large hill and the approach looked as shown above. (This site is different from Kominejo Castle which was built later than this one.)
次にチャリで向かったのが、白川城跡です。1331-1337年の間に、当時権勢をふるっていた白河結城氏の結城宗廣が構築しました。高い丘陵の上にあり、写真が今日の入口になります。(このお城は、白河小峰城の以前に建てられたもので別物です。国の史跡にもなっています。)

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Climbing up the steps the top ground looked as shown above. Only a small shrine and a monument were there.
段を登り丘の上にでると、写真のような光景で、小さな祠と記念碑があるくらいでした。

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Looking into the small shrine I found the name of the founder Yuki Munehiro as shown above.
祠の中を覗くと、構築した結城宗廣の名前が見えます。

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Leaving Shirakawa Castle site I headed to Nanko Park completed in 1801 by Shirakawa domain lord Matsudaira Sadanobu, which was designated as national historic site as well as national scenic site. This was the first official park in Japan and the entrance of the park looked as shown above.
白川城をあとにし、次に南湖公園に向かいました。ここは、白河藩主の松平定信が1801年につくったもので、国の史跡・名勝になっています。また、日本で最初の公園でもあります。写真は、本日の入口の光景です。

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A Japanese style garden “Suirakuen” made later was located adjacent to Lake Nanko. The late autumn foliage looked as shown above.
南湖のすぐ脇に、後になってできた日本式庭園の翠楽苑があります。写真は,本日の晩秋の光景です。

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Right next to this garden there was Nanko Shrine where Shirakawa domain lord Matsudaira Sadanobu who developed Nanko Park was enshrined. There was a statue of the lord at the entrance of the shrine as shown above.
翠楽苑の隣に、南湖公園を開発した松平定信を祀った南湖神社があります。その入口には写真の定信像が建っています。

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A historic teahouse building “Shofutei-ragetsuan” which was built in 1795 was located within the precinct. The teahouse was originally built in separate place and loved by the lord, but later moved to the current site.
南湖神社の境内に、「松風亭蘿月庵」という茶室があります。1795年に最初別の場所に建てられたものですが、定信も時折訪れていて、後でこの地に移設されたものです。

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Another historic teahouse called “Kyorakutei” was located on a small hill on the edge of Lake Nanko as shown above. It was built between 1801 and 1803 after the development of Nanko Park was finished. The name symbolized the basic idea of the lord that everyone should enjoy their life regardless of rank, position or class. Near Kyorakutei there was a tomb for Tanagura domain soldiers who fought and died in Boshin Civil War in Shirakawa battlefield.
もう1つの茶亭「共楽亭」は、南湖の縁の小高い丘に建っています。南湖開発終了後の1801-1803年の間に建てられたもので、その名前は、身分の上下なく平等に共に楽しむという考えを現してします。なお、共楽亭の近くには、白河の地で戊辰戦争の犠牲となった棚倉藩士のお墓も建っていました。

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Leaving Nanko Park I headed to Inariyama site where Shirakawaguchi battle, which was the fiercest Boshin fight in Shirakawa between Tohoku region allied forces and the new government forces. Photo above was a grave for Aizu domain soldiers who died in the Shirakawaguchi battle.
南湖公園を後にし、稲荷山に向かいました。ここは、白河の戊辰戦争で、奥羽越列藩同盟軍と新政府軍との間で最も激しい戦いが行われた「白河口の戦い」の場所です。写真は、犠牲になった会津藩士の墓です。

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There was another memorial monument shown above for all the victims of Boshin Shirakawaguchi battle.
また別の場所(稲荷山公園内)には、写真の白河口の戦いの犠牲者全員の慰霊碑もあります。

The exact route and locations are shown in the map below. The map can be scaled up and down with a click and scroll.
ルートと場所は、下の地図を参照ください。地図は、クリックとスクロールで、拡大・縮小が可能です。
20181114白河史跡巡りday2 (560x420)

Shirakawa historic sites tour: day 1, Nov. 13, 2018. (白河史跡巡り1日目 大信地区 2018年11月13日)

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I was looking for days when I can go around historic sites in Shirakawa area by bike, and I found that this week was a perfect choice because of mild days before it gets colder.
On the first day, I started pedaling from Koriyama heading toward Taishin which was northern district of Shirakawa. Major topic today was an old Aizu (or Shirakawa) Highway in Edo Period between Shirakawa and Aizu which went through mountainous area of Taishin. Photo above shows late autumn view along the narrow highway.
白河の史跡巡りをチャリで考えていましたが、今週がちょうど穏やかな天気で来週は寒くなる予報なので出かけました。
初日は郡山から出発し、まず大信地区に入りました。江戸時代に白河と会津を結んだ会津街道(会津からみると白河街道)は大信地区を通りました。写真は、晩秋の旧会津街道の(狭い山間部の)様子です。

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I found an “ichirizuka”, a kind of milestone which was placed every 4km in Edo Period along major highways, as shown in the pictures above together with a description board on the site. This site was called Iidoyo Ichirizuka after the name of the location.
写真は、江戸時代の一里塚です。地名にちなみ、飯土用(いいどよう)の一里塚と呼びます。

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Photo above shows today’s view of Kamikoya village which prospered as one of the post towns along the highway. A map of the village together with history description was posted on the site as shown above. The village was formed in the late 1500’s and since then many high-ranking shogunate officials stayed at here.
写真は、会津街道沿いの宿場町だった上小屋宿の今日の姿です。地図と歴史も現地に掲示されていました。上小屋宿は、16世紀頃から存在していたようで、1802年には日本地図を作った伊能忠敬も泊まったそうです。

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Entering into Taishin from north this morning, I first stopped at an old stone memorial as shown above. This kind of old stone plate memorial was called “itahi”. And this particular one was called Kencho-no-itahi which was inscribed as made in the year 1256.
今朝、北から大信入り後、最初に寄ったのが写真の「板碑」(いたひ)です。「板碑」は供養塔の一種で、ここにあるのは1256年につくられた建長の板碑と呼ばれるものです。

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The next stop was Nakayama Gishu Memorial Library located in the central part of Taishin as shown above. Gishu Nakayama (1900-1969) was a renowned writer from Taishin who won distinguished literary awards including Akutagawa Award. He always loved and referred to the beautiful landscape of Taishin.
次に寄ったのは、大信支所のそばにある写真の「中山義秀記念文学館」です。中山義秀(1900-1969年)は、大信出身の芥川賞作家で、生まれ育った故郷の大信を愛していました。

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Kumano Shrine in Taishin, as shown above, holds special treasure called “Mishotai” or “kakebotoke” which combines Shinto and Buddhism. The treasure made in 1433 was designated as a prefectural important cultural asset.
大信にある熊野神社には、御正体(みしょうたい)または懸仏(かけぼとけ)と呼ばれる神仏習合の対象が保管されています。1433年につくられたもので、県重要文化財に指定されています。

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At the end of old Aizu Highway, there was a place named “Onnaishi” where it was an entry point into the central part of Shirakawa as well as the start (or end) point of old Oshu Highway which led to Edo (Tokyo). In the late 1600’s the population of Shirakawa castle town was about 15,000 and at the same time it was the 27th (last) post town from Edo. Some of the tombs for the victims of Boshin Civil War in 1868 were placed at this location. One of them as shown above was for 150 soldiers from Sendai domain who lost their lives at the battleground of Shirakawa.
会津街道(または白河街道)の終点は女石という場所で、白河城下町の入口でもあり江戸への奥州街道の起点(終点)でもあります。1600年代の江戸時代の白河城下町は1万5千人ほどの人口で、また江戸からは27番目の宿場町でもありました。女石には、戊辰戦争の犠牲者のお墓がいくつかあります。写真は、150人がこの白河の地で犠牲になった仙台藩士の墓です。

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PB137459 (560x424)Another one as shown above was for a woman called Shige who was tragically killed during the war.
また、戦争のために悲惨な死を遂げた、しげと言う女性のお墓もあります。

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Finally I came to the central part of Shirakawa castle town and found a historic building called Taiko-yagura. This was the only original building left today which was located within Kominejo Castle in Edo Period. It was moved later to this place and preserved.
白河の城下町に入ると、写真の太鼓櫓を見付けました。この建物は、白河小峰城の敷地内にあった当時のものが現存する唯一の建物で、その後この地に移動され保存されています。

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Photo above shows the only remain of the main road between Tamachi Gate in the east and Kitakoji Gate closer to the center of the Kominejo Castle.
また、写真は、江戸時代に東の田町御門と城に近い北小路御門を結ぶ道の名残です。

The exact route and locations are shown in the map below. The map can be scaled up and down with a click and scroll.
ルートと場所は、下の地図を参照ください。地図は、クリックとスクロールで、拡大・縮小が可能です。
20181113白河史跡巡りday1 (560x420)
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Author:A man who loves Fukushima (福島大好きおじさん)
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